This is clearly an off topic post but when I looked at the calendar today, it occurred to me that on this day in 1945, Berlin unconditionally surrendered to the Allies. It was a significant moment in the second world war, and it wasn’t long before all of Germany surrendered. This is something I felt inspired to write in light of such a dark chapter known to mankind.
70 Years Ago Today at the Battle in Berlin: A look in to the heart of mankind, its past, present and future
The Battle in Berlin ended on 1945 May 2. It was a glimmer of hope for many, and would be a day that would begin the ultimate surrender of Germany in World War 2. Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945), along with his newly wed wife Eva Braun, had committed suicide 10 days after Hitler’s 56th birthday – April 30, 1945; he knew the end was approaching and he was not one to surrender: he made sure he was not captured. Josef Goebbels, who stayed with Hitler to the very end, had also committed suicide – and forced his family, including his kids (the mother assured the kids everyone was using this drug – I believe morphine – and to not worry, therefore allowing them to be sedated while they’re poisoned) to do the same. Goebbels was, of course, the master propagandist of Nazi Germany, and this combined with Hitler being a very powerful speaker is a very dangerous combination (yet they weren’t the only powerful variables). Hitler of course was concerned that the cyanamide was not sufficiently potent, and despite him being close to his German Shepherd Blondi, a day before he committed suicide, he tested a dose of cyanamide on Blondi; she would be buried and later excavated by the Soviet Union. Meanwhile, Hitler ordered that his remains as well as Eva’s remains, to be burnt. I’ll return to the liberation of Berlin towards the end of this essay.
The fact Hitler was never one to surrender is quite obvious when you consider the end of the first world war – the war to end all wars: he felt it was an utter betrayal to surrender and was in disbelief that the war was finished; he truly wanted to continue after recovering from temporary blindness (from a mustard gas attack). The Germans (Hitler was born in Austria and was very much Austrian: indeed, over the years, as I recall more than once, many cities in Austria have rushed to make sure that he was not still an honorary citizen, after it was made known that a city still declared him exactly that) told him they no longer needed his service. This of course, was not the end: The Treaty of Versailles left Germany a disaster.
Germany lost a lot of land; the Rhineland was to be demilitarised; their military was limited to no more than 100,000 men; they were not allowed an air force; were to give up military air craft; they were not allowed to import or build air power for six months among other air warfare restrictions (yet ironically, despite all this, the Luftwaffe would later literally flatten areas in the UK during The Blitz, which caused many in England to use the tube stations as bombing shelters and led to utter devastation in areas – like North Ireland – that did not prepare if not outright ignore warnings); prohibition in the arms trade; limitations as to what the navy was allowed (battleships as well as number of men); they were to pay billions (marks) in reparations, something I believe they’ve yet to pay off (I would be surprised if they ever do, assuming that indeed they have not yet); and much more. Germany was not invited to the discussions. All of this paved the way for Hitler to eventually take over what would later become the National Socialist German Workers’ Party – or Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (abbreviated as NSDAP), more commonly known as the Nazi Party. It was originally the National Socialists party. It was Hitler who decided to rename it to what it is known as today. His idea was it would appease to the masses, essentially everyone but the communists and the Jews. In addition, the victors also largely ignored the Japanese, despite Japan being a victor.
When you think of all this, it would be absurd to even dream of there not being another major conflict. As far as I am aware, the Americans tried to some time later get some of these limitations removed, because of this fear. But they were too late and/or not successful. Essentially, the treaty would be to the victors’ – and indeed the entire world – peril.
Yet despite the terror of the time, despite the atrocities, mankind has not taken to heart all the lessons. There is no such thing as tolerance if it is not respected and considered 100%; therefore, tolerance is a dangerous lie: selective tolerance still discriminates and that is exactly what happened so many years ago and to this day still occurs. It is true that there were horrible atrocities with terrible consequences and to this day there still is. But war is war. While that does not justify what was done, it should always be kept in mind. The last remaining body guard of Hitler once said something that should be remembered because it is completely honest and 100% valid: there’s never been a war without war crime. I would extend this, and perhaps he meant this too, by adding: war itself is a crime.
Yet despite the Soviet Union liberating Berlin (and other Nazi occupied land), they were not above being horrendous, either. The Red Army looted, committed mass rape and mass murder. This affected many more people: rape and in general sexual – which is also physical, mental and emotional – abuse ruins lives (and a close friend of mine can attest to that, even though it should be obvious). Then there’s the murders. Is that better than the Nazis? The effect would not happen if it wasn’t for the cause; the cause is the lack of tolerance, the hate, vengeful, discriminatory and oppressive behaviour and mentality. Yet many Soviets earned medals for liberating Berlin. One hopes that none that participated in the deplorable actions were also rewarded, but as I’ve already noted – war is a criminal act, and it is inevitable that these things will happen, and in all likelihood many perpetrators were indeed rewarded.
It is interesting to note that two very significant things changed the war outlook (of course there’s others, including some that are because of these). First, Hitler regretted his pact with the Soviet Union, and he decided to break it by invasion. With the Soviet’s scorched earth tactic, combined with the climate and temperatures there, the German army suffered terribly. This also meant that the Soviets would fight the Nazis and ultimately would liberate much of Europe (it is also worth noting that other neutral countries – Sweden, for example – would not only remain unoccupied but also gain the Nazis trust and as such, many Jews were able to flee to Sweden). The other is that Japan bombed Pearl Harbor and this, combined with Hitler shortly thereafter declaring war on the United States of America, would bring the US in to the war. The Americans were an important part of the victory, from D-Day (Normandy) and through the Pacific.
70 years ago today began the first part of a transition to the end of a very dark chapter in mankind. Never forget what happened, how many lives were lost, how many lost family, how many suffered. Never forget it could have been worse. But do not forget either that it could have been better if only there was tolerance, more peaceful cooperation (instead of aggressive competition) and if only more people remembered how their actions affect others. Ultimately, World War Two could have been avoided as could many other wars, including wars after World War Two. But they aren’t avoided. 70 years have gone by and mankind has still not acknowledged these things; there is nothing darker than this realisation.
 Just like it is commonly spelt Adolf Hitler (when his birth certificate actually shows Adolphus) it is often Joseph instead of Josef. One of the books I have on Hitler (as below) spells it Josef. Probably the common spellings are English.
 I always remembered cyanide. However, because I wanted to cite references to some of this, I looked at one of the books I have on Hitler. While some other Nazis did use cyanide, apparently Blondi was given cyanamide (and it seems that it was initially Hitler’s doctor that suggested this be the way to test it). Ironically, despite Hitler’s fear (he shared the fear with someone who had relayed the fear to Hitler although they had different reasons as to believe it) it was Eva Braun who took the cyanamide (although she tried to use something else; the name fails to come to mind). Hitler shot himself instead.
 There was no place for Jews as far as he was concerned. What made him hate Jews so much is likely a combination of factors but one theory is something the Nazis used themselves – spreading fear and hate by words and actions; certainly he mirrored some beliefs as others had already made public, and certainly he was influenced by others. I’m not certain why he hated the communists so much except that he supposedly railed against them in Mein Kampf in addition to the Jews.
While I have more books on Hitler, the one I have actually read (albeit a long time ago until some brief checks earlier today) is below.
Adolf Hitler: The Definitive Biography by John Toland (Anchor, 1992)